CHAPTER 11:  PERFECT EVIDENCE

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THE NUTRITION “CONTROVERSY” TRAP

Hotz, Robert Lee. Most Science Studies Appear to Be Tainted by Sloppy Analysis. 14 Sept. 2007. 14 Sept. 2007 <http://online.wsj.com/article/SB118972683557627104.html>.

MEASURING TWO THINGS AT A TIME

Campbell, T Colin, and Thomas M. Campbell II. The China Study. Dallas, TX: Benbella Books, 2005.

Haddad, Ella H, and Tanzman, Jay S. “What to vegetarians in the United States eat?” Am J Clin Nutr 78 suppl (2003): 626S-32S.

Ioannidis, John P.A. “Why Most Published Research Findings are False.” PLoS Med 2 (2005): E124.

THE FULL PATTERN GIVES YOU THE SOLUTION

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SOME CHINA STUDY HIGHLIGHTS

Campbell, T. Colin, and Cox, Christine. The China Project: Revealing the Relationship Between Diet and Disease. Ithaca, NY: New Century Nutrition, 1996.

Campbell, TC, B. Parpia, and J. Chen. “Diet, lifestyle, and the etiology of coronary. artery disease: the Cornell China study.” Am J Cardiol 82 (1998): 18T-21T

Campbell, T Colin, and Thomas M. Campbell II. The China Study. Dallas, TX: Benbella Books, 2005.

MORE CHINA STUDY FINDINGS

Campbell, TC, and C. Junshi. “Diet and chronic degenerative diseases: perspectives from China.” Am J Clin Nutr 59 (1994): 1153S-161S.

Campbell, T. Colin, and Cox, Christine. The China Project: Revealing the Relationship Between Diet and Disease. Ithaca, NY: New Century Nutrition, 1996.

Chen, J., et al. “Antioxidant Status and Cancer Mortality in China.” International Journal Epidemiology 21 (1992): 625-35.

Campbell, TC, B. Parpia, and J. Chen. “Diet, lifestyle, and the etiology of coronary. artery disease: the Cornell China study.” Am J Cardiol 82 (1998): 18T-21T

Campbell, T Colin, and Thomas M. Campbell II. The China Study. Dallas, TX: Benbella Books, 2005.

Fuhrman, Joel. Eat to Live. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 2003

A REAL WORLD MEAT-FREE GROUP

Fraser, Gary E. “Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-Day Adventists.” Am J Clin Nutr 70 suppl (1999): 532S-38S.

Willett, Walter. “Lessons from dietary studies in Adventists and questions for the future.” Am J Clin Nutr 78 suppl (2003): 539S-43S.

Fraser, Gary E., and David J. Shavlik. “Ten Years of Life: Is It a Matter or Choice.” Arch Intern Med 161 (2001): 1645-652.

Knutsen, Synnove. “Lifestyle and the use of health services.” Am J Clin Nutr 59 suppl (1994): 1171S-175S.

Fraser, Gary E. Diet, Life Expectancy, and Chronic Disease: Studies of Seventh-day Adventists and Other Vegetarians. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Barnard, Neal D., et al. “Vegetarian and Vegan Diets in Type 2 Diabetes Management.” Nutr Reviews 67 (2009): 255-63.

MORE OBSERVATIONS OF ANIMAL FOODS

Fleming, Richard M., and Tom Monte. Stop Inflammation Now. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 2004.

Youngman, Linda D., and TC Campbell. “The Sustained Development of Preneoplastic Lesions Depends on High Protein Intake.” Nutr Cancer 18 (1992): 131-42.

Grant, WB. “A multicounty ecologic study of risk and risk reduction factors for prostate cancer mortality.” Eur Urol 45 (2004): 271-79.

Campbell, T Colin. “Animal Protein and Ischemic Heart Disease.” Am J Clin Nutr 71 (2000): 849-50.

Campbell, T Colin, and Thomas M. Campbell II. The China Study. Dallas, TX: Benbella Books, 2005.

Fuhrman, Joel. Eat to Live. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 2003.

Singh, Pramil, Joan Sabate, and Gary E. Fraser. “Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans?” Am J Clin Nutr 78 suppl (2003): 526S-32S.

Hu, Ji-Fan, B. Parpia, X. Zhao, and TC Campbell. “Dietary intakes and urinary excretion of calcium and acids: a cross-sectional study of women in China.” Am J Clin Nutr 58 (1993): 398-406.

Li, XM. “The Experience of Japan as a Clue to the Etiology of Breast and Ovarian Cancers: Relationship between Death from Both Malignancies and Dietary Practices.” Med Hypotheses 60 (2003): 268-75.

Ganmaa, D., et al. “The Experience of Japan as a Clue to the Etiology of Testicular and Prostatic Cancers.” Med Hypotheses 60 (2003): 724-30.

Ganmaa, D., and A. Sato. “The Possible Role of Female Sex Hormones in Milk from Pregnant Cows in the Development of Breast, Ovarian, and Corpus Uteri Cancers.” Med Hypotheses 65 (2005): 1028-037.

Sugano, Haruo, and Goi Sakamoto. “Time-Trend Data of Breast Cancer in Japan: Clinicopathological Findings.” Preventive Medicine 7 (1978): 168-72.

Hirayama, Takeshi. “Epidemiology of Breast Cancer with Special Reference to the Role of Diet.” Preventive Medicine 7 (1978): 173-95.

Stang, Andreas, et al. “Adolescent Milk Fat and Galactose Consumption and Testicular Germ Cell Cancer.” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15 (2006): 2189-19.

HOW MUCH EVIDENCE DO YOU NEED?

Song, Yiqang, JE Manson, JE Buring, and S. Liu. “A Prospective Study of Red Meat Consumption and Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged and Elderly Women.” Diabetes Care 27 (2004): 2108-115.

Sellmeyer, Deborah E., et al. “A high ratio of dietary animal to vegetable protein increases the rate of bone loss and the risk of fracture in postmenopausal women.” Am J Clin Nutr 73 (2001): 118-22.

Milk Intake Tied to Increased Risk of Parkinson’s Disease. 6 Apr. 2005. 7 Apr. 2005 <http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/502564_print>.

Barclay, Laurie, and Desiree Lie. Red Meat Consumption May be Linked to Inflammatory Arthritis. 8 Dec. 2004. 16 Dec. 2004. <http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/495485_print>

Chan, June M., et al. “Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians’ Health Study.” Am J Clin Nutr 74 (2001): 549-54.

Stripp, Connie, et al. “Fish Intake is Positively Associated with Breast Cancer Incidence Rate.” J Nutr 133 (2003): 3664-669.

Guallar, Eliseo, et al. “Mercury, Fish Oils, and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction.” NEJM 347 (2002): 1747-754.

Zheng, Tongzhang, et al. “Diet and Nutrient Intakes and Risk of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma in Connecticut Women.” Am J Epidemiology 159 (2004): 454-66.

Genkinger, Jeanine M., et al. “Dairy Products and Ovarian Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of 12 Cohort Studies.” Cancer Epidem Biomarkers Prev 15 (2006): 364-72.

Cassels, Caroline. Endogenous Estrogen Associated with Increased Dementia Risk in Men. 24 July 2006. 25 July 2006 <http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/541420_print>.

Trichopoulou, A., et al. “Low-Carbohydrate-High-Protein Diet and Long-Term Survival in a General Population Cohort.” Eur J Clin Nutr (2006): Doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602557.

Michaud, Dominique S., et al. “Meat Intake and Bladder Cancer Risk in 2 Prospective Cohort Studies.” Am J Clin Nutr 84 (2006): 1177-183.

Xu, Wang-Hong, et al. “Nutritional Factors in Relation to Endometrial Cancer: A Report from a Population-Based Case-Control Study in Shanghai, China.” Int J Cancer 120 (2007): 1776-781.

Berkow, Susan E., et al. “Diet and Survival After Prostate Cancer Diagnosis.” Nutrition Reviews 65 (2007): 391-403.

Park, Song-Yi, et al. “Calcium, Vitamin D, and Dairy Product Intake and Prostate Cancer Risk.” Am J Epidemiol 166 (2007): 1259-269.

Chen, H., and Et al. “Consumption of Dairy Products and Risk of Parkinson’s Disease.” Am J Epidemiol 165 (2007): 998-1006.

PERFECT FOODS AND CANCER

Grant, WB. “A multicounty ecologic study of risk and risk reduction factors for prostate cancer mortality.” Eur Urol 45 (2004): 271-79.

Tongzhang, Zheng, et al. “Diet and Nutrient Intakes and Risk of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma in Connecticut Women.” Am J Epidemiology 159 (2004): 454-66.

Thompson, Lillian U., et al. “Dietary Flaxseed Alters Tumor Biological Markers in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer.” Clin Cancer Res 11 (2005): 3828-835.

World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Rep. Washington DC: AICR, 2007.

Ornish, Dean, et al. “Intensive Lifestyle Changes May Affect the Progression of Prostate Cancer.” Journal Urol 174 (2005): 1065-070.

Grant, William B. “A Multicountry Ecologic Study of Risk and Risk Reduction Factors for Prostate Cancer Mortality.” European Urology 45 (2004): 271-79.

Ganmaa, D., and A. Sato. “The Possible Role of Female Sex Hormones in Milk from Pregnant Cows in the Development of Breast, Ovarian, and Corpus Uteri Cancers.” Med Hypotheses 65 (2005): 1028-037.

MORE VIEWS OF PERFECT FOODS

Demark-Wahnefried, W., et al. “Pilot study to explore effects of low-fat, flaxseed-supplemented diet on proliferation of benign prostatic epithelium and prostate-specific antigen.” Urology 63 (2004): 900-04.

Poullis, A., et al. “Bowel inflammation as measured by fecal calprotectin: a link between lifestyle factors and colorectal cancer risk.” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13 (2004): 279-84.

McDougall, John, et al. “Effects of a Very Low-Fat, Vegan Diet in Subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 8 (2002): 71-75.

Hanninen, Kaartinen K., et al. “Antioxidants in vegan diet and rheumatic disorders.” Toxicology 155 (2000): 45-53.

Campbell, T Colin, and Thomas M. Campbell II. The China Study. Dallas, TX: Benbella Books, 2005.

Jiang, R., et al. “Nut and Seed Consumption and Inflammatory Markers in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.” Am J Epidemiol. 15 Dec. 2005. epub ahead of print.

Jenkins, David JA, et al. “Type 2 diabetes and the vegetarian diet.” Am J Clin Nutr 78 suppl (2003): 610S-16S.

Barclay, Laurie, and Charles Vega. Vegetable Protein May Be Inversely Related to Blood Pressure. 10 Jan. 2006. 11 Jan. 2006 <http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/521193_print>.

Gillman, Matthew W. “Enjoy your fruits and vegetables.” BMJ 313 (1996): 765-66.

Buettner, Dan. “Secrets of Long Life.” National Geographic Nov. 2005: 2-26.

Barclay, Laurie, and Desiree Lie. Eating fruits and vegetables may reduce stroke risk. 30 Jan. 2006. 31 Jan. 2006 <http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/522582_print>.

Tomatoes, carrots, greens may lower asthma risk. 17 Mar. 2006. 20 Mar. 2006 <http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20060317/hl_nm/asthma_risk>.

McDougall, John, et al. “Rapid Reduction of Serum Cholesterol and Blook Pressure by a Twelve-Day, Very Low Fat, Strictly Vegetarian Diet.” J Am College Nutrition 14 (1995): 491-96.

Liu, Rui Hai. “Health Benefits of Fruit and Vegetables are from Additive and Synergistic Combinations of Phytochemicals.” Am J Clin Nutr 78 (2003): 517S-20S.

Yusuf, Salim, et al. “Effect of Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors Associated with Myocardial Infaction in 52 Countries (the INTERHEART study): Case-control Study.” Lancet 364 (2004): 937-52.

Diehl, Hans A. “Coronary Risk Reduction Through Intensive Community-Based Lifestyle Intervention: The Coronary health Improvement Project (CHIP) Experience.” Am J Cardiol 82 (1998): 83T-7T.

Koh-Banerjee, Pauline, and Eric B. Rimm. “Whole Grain Consumption and Weight Gain: A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence, Potential Mechanisms and Opportunites for Future Research.” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 62 (2003): 25-29.

Prynne, Celia J., et al. “Fruit and Vegetable Intakes and Bone Mineral Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in 5 Age and Sex Cohorts.” Am J Clin Nutr 83 (2006): 1420-428.

Cortes, Berenice. “Acute Effects of High-Fat Meals Enriched with Walnuts or Olive Oil on Postprandial Endothelial Function.” J Am Coll Cardiol 48 (2006): 1666-671.

Barclay, Laurie, and Charles Vega. High Vegetable Intake Linked to Lower Risk for BPH. 20 Feb. 2007. 21 Feb. 2007 <http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/552407_print>.

Meyskens, Jr, Frank L., and Eva Szabo. “Diet and Cancer: The Disconnect between Epidemiology and Randomized Clinical Trials.” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14 (2005): 1366-369.

Barclay, Laurie, and Desiree Lie. Mediterranean Diet May Protect Against Childhood Asthma-Like Symptoms and Rhinitis. 9 Apr. 2007. 10 Apr. 2007 <http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/554819_print>.

Chustecka, Zosia. Flaxseed May Prevent Growth of Prostate Cancer. 5 June 2007. 6 June 2007 <http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/557753_print>.

Barnard, Neal D., et al. “Diet and Sex-Hormone Binding Globulin, Dysmenorrhea, and Premenstrual Symptoms.” Obstet Gynecol 95 (2000): 245-50.

Winham, Donna M., et al. “Pinto Bean Consumption Reduces Biomarkers for Heart Disease Risk.” J Am College Nutr 26 (2007): 243-49.

Whole Grains Help Deflate Belly Rolls. 20 Feb. 2008. 21 Feb. 2008 <http://www.msnbc.com/id/23256171/>.

Harding, Anne. Veggies and Alcohol May Ward Off Prostate Woes. 22 Feb. 2008. 25 Feb. 2008 <http://www.reuters.com/articlePrint?articleId=USSAT28580020080222>.

THE STORY CONDENSED

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